I don't really have anything new to tell you. It looks like in your old threads we've been over the setup procedure but apparently it does not work for you. I'm having a hard time with the idea of bad hardware or corrupted firmware, These things are typically all or nothing - either it works fine or it does absolutely nothing. But I guess anything is possible.
Random thinking out loud:
You might want to tell your phone to "forget this network" for the NixieClockTimeModule network on the off-chance your phone has decided to save (and automatically send out) a mis-typed password.
If your phone (I like to use my phone rather than a PC to set these things up) actually succeeds in joining NixieClockTimeModule I'd expect it to pick up 192.168.4.2 as its IP. If it's picking up some other IP (or no IP) something is wrong and at least we have a direction to look in.
When I connect to NixieClockTimeModule network my phone complains that the network is insecure and that the network has no internet access. But it lets me connect anyway. Is it possible your phone is trying to keep you "safe" and you need to set an exception somewhere so it actually lets you join and use the network?
IF you join NixieClockTimeModule network AND pick up 192.168.4.2 as your IP but DON'T get a captive portal, all I can say is you should immediately (you are racing a 60 second timeout here) fire up a browser and go to http://192.168.4.1/ If that doesn't work then I don't know what to tell you next.
As far as programming a new ESP-01 module, a few tips:
Look at the comments on the various #include lines of the source code. The comments tell you where to get the libraries that aren't already included in the Arduino IDE distribution. Get them and install them.
All the settings you need to make in the IDE (under Tools menubar item) are also in the comments at the very top of the source code. It says to use Flash Mode QIO but I prefer to use DOUT.
Your dongle may or may not be a programmer - can't tell without seeing it. The point is that GPIO-0 MUST be held low (not floated - actually tied down to ground) when power is applied to the ESP, i.e. when the dongle is plugged into the port, to put it into programming mode. A dongle that's an actual programmer will likely have a switch for this purpose. If no switch, you'll need to rig something with a jumper. There are also a few dongles turning up with GPIO-0 tied to RTS on the USB/Serial chip, which sort of automates the grounding of GPIO-0. Thank you eBay sellers for treating these three or more variants like they're all the same product so we can never be sure what we're going to get!
TL;DR - Ground GPIO-0 to program, float it to run.
The ESP shows up as a COM port in Arduino IDE. Unlike an actual Arduino, it's shown as just a COM port with no further description.
Look into it later when the dust is clearing off the crater.
I'm planning to start offering programmers for the ESP modules. I've ordered a small batch of USB modules which can be easily converted to programmers. I have only a few, because I don't think most people will be interested, but for people who are interested, they will ease things up. I hope at least.